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WAYSIDE ART IN EAST ANGLIA

SYMBOLS

Heraldry is the word used to describe anything to do with coats of arms.  A coat of arms is a design on a shield-shaped motif that signifies a particular family.  

 

Originally heraldry referred to the business of a herald.  In the early Middle Ages he was an officer of the king’s army whose job it was to manage the troops.  To make that management easier, important individuals, such as earls, made themselves more easily identifiable by displaying their own emblems on their shields, banners and helmets.  Before being allowed to display such emblems, though, permission had first to be granted by the king.

 

Individual emblems could be passed down from father to son.  When there was no male heir to inherit a coat of arms, it could be passed on to daughters instead.  When two armigers married (an armiger being a person entitled to a coat of arms), their emblems were placed side by side on the same shield.  When four coats of arms were represented on one shield this was known as quartering.  The faces of shields became busier with successive generations, and their designs also grew in variety with the number of families entitled to coats of arms constantly increasing.  Even so, families became very proud of them and were keen to retain them even after they ceased to have any practical purpose.  Such emblems, or coats of arms as they came to be called, became symbols of family honour and the pride that is attached to them still survives today.

 

The first king to have his own emblem was Richard I in 1198.

As heraldry became more and more complex it developed a whole new language of its own, not only with its own specialist vocabulary, but also with its own rules of classification, and a wide range of symbols and pictures.  It reached its maturity in the fourteenth century, by which time coats of arms might be depicted almost anywhere.  Shields adorned the walls and windows of buildings, embroidered furnishings and garments, and decorated a whole range of domestic objects.

 

There are thousands of examples of coats of arms in Norfolk and Suffolk, many depicted on village signs and some associated with pub signs.  The majority, however, are to be seen on buildings, and in particular on and in churches, where the earliest surviving examples date from the twelfth century.  Shields carved in stone on the base of towers often denote a wealthy benefactor, usually a member of the nobility.  Coats of arms are frequently seen in stained glass windows and on brasses and memorials.  The most striking examples, however, are often around tombs where the effigies of an armiger and his wife lie on top, and shields of their own and related families decorate the sides, as in the example pictured above.

 

The following are just a few more examples of the many in the region.

Coat of arms on a tomb in East Harling Church in Norfolk, showing twelve different family emblems.

Above: Detail of a tomb in Framlingham Church in Suffolk showing the coats or arms of the Howard family, the Dukes of Norfolk (top left quarter of shield), that of Brotherton (top right quarter), that of the Warennes (bottom left) and of the Mowbrays (bottom right).  The tomb was erected in 1614 by order of Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton, in memory of his parents.  His father, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was executed in 1547.  His mother, Frances de Vere, daughter of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford, died in 1577.

Left:  Another side of the same tomb as in the picture above.  This side has the shield of the de Vere family with its star in the top left-hand corner.

 

Note the fine carvings of helmets, swords and drum.

This coat of arms is on the Ancient House in Ipswich.  The most famous old house in the city, it was built in 1567 by George Copping.  It is also known as Sparrowe’s House after the Sparrowe family (who were ardent Royalists) lived in it for two hundred years.  A secret room was apparently discovered in the nineteenth century by a man falling through the roof, and rumour has it that King Charles II was once hidden inside.  It is the royal coat of arms of Charles II that we see here plastered above the doorway.  Pevsner makes the comment that the plasterwork and pargeting on the outside, which dates from about 1670,  is ‘more ornate and gayer than any other house of its date in England’, and Arthur Mee describes it as an ‘architectural gem’, which indeed it is.

The royal coat of arms flanked by a lion and a unicorn in Mundesley Church in Norfolk.

These two shields (above) at Long Melford Church in Suffolk decorate the sides of a tomb belonging to Sir William Clopton, who died in 1446.  His son, John Clopton, was the church’s founder.

The above pictures show two uncoloured heraldic shields in Framlingham Church in Suffolk.  

 

Top left is on the tomb of Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset.  Henry was the son of Henry VIII and Elizabeth Blount.  He married Mary Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, and of Elizabeth Stafford.  The four quarterings on the left half of the shield show the Richmond arms, and those on the right, show the arms of Brotherton (top right), the Howards (top), the Warennes (bottom) and the Mowbrays (the lion, bottom right).

 

The other shield (above right) commemorates the first two of the three wives of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk - Mary, daughter and heir of Henry FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel, and Margaret, daughter and heir of Thomas, Lord Audley of Walden.  The shield is divided into eight quarters.  Along the top from left to right are the coats of arms of the Howards, Brotherton, the Albini FitzAlans and the FitzAlans.  Along the bottom half of the shield from left to right are the coats of arms of the Warennes, the Mowbrays, the Woodvilles and the Maltravers.

Left: The royal coat of arms above the entrance door of the kings Arms public house at Reepham in Norfolk.

Two more examples of signs associated with pubs.  Above left shows a coat of arms with a motto on the wall of a pub at Harleston in Norfolk.  Above right shows a coat of arms on a pub sign at Occold in Suffolk.  Note the mug of beer in the middle.

These three coats of arms are painted on the walls of the north walk in the cloisters of Norwich Cathedral.  The walk was the scene of a famous banquet held in 1578 when Queen Elizabeth I visited Norwich, and the arms are those of the people who entertained her.

Right: These coat of arms are displayed on a memorial at Thetford that celebrates the centenary of the death of Maharajah Duleep Singh who lived nearby at Elvedon Hall.  He became a favourite of Queen Victoria, who granted him a coat of arms which he never registered.

Duleep Singh’s kingdom, the Punjab, was taken from him when it became part of the British Raj of India in 1849.  After he was escorted to England, he settled at Elvedon Hall until his death in 1893.

The two post horns on this village sign at Scole in Norfolk represents the Scole Inn (formerly known as the White Hart), which is a prominent building in the village.  Considered to be one of the finest coaching inns in the country it was built in 1655.  As the coaches approached the inn, the outriders blew on their post horns to announce their arrival to the innkeepers.  Above the two post horns depicted on the sign there is an eagle, representing the Romans who were here centuries earlier.  Below the post horns there is the cross of St. Andrew who is the patron saint of the local church.  The two shields are those of the Cornwallis and Shelton families.  Ideas for the design came from parishioners, including the children.  It was made by Harry Carter of Swaffham, and was erected in 1976.

Above:  This heraldic shield on a window is at St. Peter’s Church in Thetford and dates from the eighteenth century.

 

Below:  Under the chancel arch in the church of St. Catherine, Ludham, in Norfolk, is a parchment covered Tympanum.  It was possibly painted during the reign of Queen Mary (1553-1558).  On the west side there are figures of Jesus on the cross, St. Mary and St. John, and on the east side there is a canvas with the arms of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) with the inscriptions ‘non me pudet evangelii Christi’ (which means ‘I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ’) and ‘vivat Regina Elizabeta’.  The boards of the Tympanum and the canvas lay hidden in the blocked-up staircase that led to the rood loft until it was discovered in 1879 by an archaeological society on a day out.

Above:  Coat of arms carved on a bench end inside Dennington Church in Suffolk.

Above: A shield motif carving on a bench end at Fressingfield in Suffolk.  

Above: Coats of arms on the village sign at Neatishead in Norfolk.  The shield on the left is that of the Preston family who own much of the land on which the village is built.  The shield in the centre is that of nearby St. Benet’s Abbey.  Though now a ruin, once a year a service is still held here, led by the Bishop of Norwich.  The shield on the right is the badge of the Royal Air Force, who have a radar station nearby.  The sign was designed  by Roger Challinor and painted by Roger Challinor and Alan Brown. The ironwork was done by Eric Stevenson.

The two lion supporters on this shield (above) on the village sign at Dersingham in Norfolk is a reference to the royal estate nearby at Sandringham.  Top left on the shield are the three crowns of East Anglia, top right is a ship representing Dersingham as an ancient fishing port, bottom left is a dragon rampant, denoting strength, and bottom right shows three trout.  The castellations on the top of the shield represent the parish church.  The sign was designed by S.T. Turner, and was presented to the parish council by Dersingham Women’s Institute.

The village sign at Weston Longville in Norfolk was given to the village by the 566th Bomber Group of the 8th American Air Force that was stationed at nearby Attlebridge.  A shield depicted on the top left of the sign belongs to New College, Oxford, which held the gift of the ‘living’.  Parson James Woodforde was appointed rector of the parish in 1793 by his own college of St. John’s at Oxford.  He is renowned for his diary which spans forty-three years and gives a vivid picture of country life at the time.  Another shield on the sign is that of the Rokewood family who once owned the estate here.  A third shield is that of the Custance family who lived at the old Hall here.

Relevant link:

http://www.theharaldr ysociety.com

The wrought iron village sign at Kenninghall in Norfolk was a gift from the WI in 1972.  It was designed by a former stage designer, a Mr. P. MacNamara of Quiddenham, and made by Mr. Eric Stevenson of Wroxham.  Historical research for the sign was carried out by Mr and Mrs Michael Serpell of Keninghall.  The shields were painted by Mr. A. Thirtle of Norwich.  On the apex of the sign is a representation of the ‘Kenninghall brooch’, a type of ornament like one found in the Anglo-Saxon burial ground excavated at the Butts in 1869, near where the sign stands.  Below the name is depicted the legendary crown and coat of arms of King Edward ‘the Confessor’ to whom Kenninghall belonged as a royal manor.  The two shields below are, left, the coat of arms of the Howards, Dukes of Norfolk, who built Kenninghall House and, right, the Earl of Mowbray.  The fourth shield belongs to the Earl of Albermarle.

 

Another interesting village sign is at Kimberley in Norfolk.  In the fifteenth century John de Woodhouse distinguished himself at the Battle of Agincourt and this won him armorial distinction.  His coat of arms consisted of three ermine cinquefoils and an ermine chevron.  After Agincourt the chevron was gilded and scattered with drops of blood.  These four-hundred-year-old arms were once displayed on the gateway to the park at Kimberley, which is part of an estate.  When the owner of the estate, Lord Kimberley, left in 1960, the coat of arms was re-erected on the village green for all to see, and became the parishioners’ village sign.  The original manor on the estate was built by Sir John Wodehouse who acquired the estate by marrying the heiress of Sir Thomas Fastolfe.  Above the lettering is the shield, divided between the Wodehouse arms, and those of the Fastolfes.  The supporters are wild men of the woods (Wodenhouse) and the words ‘the battle of Agincourt’ is on the crest.  The coat of arms is made of painted copper.

 

The late fifteenth century oak screen at Attleborough Church in Norfolk is fifty-two feet long with twenty-four ‘bays’.  On each bay of the loft (which is unique) there appears a shield of an English or Welsh bishopric.  These were painted on soon after the Reformation.  A text on the upper rail of the loft comes from the Bible book of Proverbs and reads ‘Put thy trust in God with all thyne heart and leane not unto thine owne wytt.

 

The porch at St. Mary’s Church in Diss, Norfolk, has a frieze of shields set in quatrefoils.

 

Pevsner describes the south porch of St. Mary’s Church in Pulham St. Mary, Norfolk, as ‘something phenomenal’.  It is two-storeyed and stone-faced, and the frieze of shields in cusped fields over the doorway includes those of the Passion and the Trinity.

 

A bequest for the thirty-four foot high, two-storeyed, stone-faced porch at St. Michael’s Church in Beccles, Suffolk, was made in 1455.  At the base is a frieze of shields in barbed quatrefoil fields.

HERALDRY

The following descriptions are a few of the many other good examples around the region:

 

On the mid-fifteenth century tower of St. Peter Mancroft Church in Norwich there’s a base frieze of flushwork with a stone frieze of shields above.  On the arches of the tower there are shields in cusped fields.

 

The Ancient House’ at Clare in Suffolk which used to be the priest’s house and dates from 1473 has a shield on an outside wall.  

 

The village sign at Orford in Suffolk, erected to mark the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953, has a shield motif.

A tympanum, dated 1587, completely fills the chancel arch of St. Margaret’s Church at Tivetshall in Norfolk.  Located above the fourteenth century rood screen, it is twenty feet wide and fifteen feet tall.  H. Munro Cautley in his ‘Norfolk Churches’ describes it as ‘the most outstanding set of arms in the county...probably the finest of the reign in the country’.  It displays the achievements of Queen Elizabeth I.  At the top is the sun portrayed to represent God over all.  Then comes the Royal Arms with the words ‘O God Save our Queen Elizabeth.’  The text underneath reads ‘Let every soul be subject unto the highest powers for there is no power but God.  The powers that be are ordained by God.’  Painted in the shield in the middle of this text is a crowned falcon holding a sceptre.  Henry VIII granted this badge to Elizabeth’s mother, Anne Boleyn.  At the base are written the Ten Commandments.  On one side are the names Richard Russell, Jeffrey Neve and John Freeman, and on the other side are the words ‘In this time they caused this to be done.’  

Shield on the painted wooden medieval screen at Tivetshall Church in Norfolk

Members of the Kemp family, who were lords of the manor at Gissing in Norfolk from 1324, were buried here up until 1936.  In the chancel of the church and in the fourteenth century north chapel there are memorials to the family, some with shields, two of which are pictured above.  The Latin phrase on the one on the right ‘Spero lucem’ means ‘I hope for light’.

Right:  Shield motifs above the doorway of the building which houses the offices of Aviva (formerly the Norwich Union Insurance Group) in Norwich.

Above:  Shields adorn the outside walls of this modern block of offices in Norwich.

Below: The village sign at Needham in Norfolk.

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